Author Topic: 沉香, Agarwood  (Read 52 times)

Online king

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沉香, Agarwood
« on: January 31, 2020, 09:08:48 AM »


Anybody with similar hobby??

Online king

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Re: 沉香, Agarwood
« Reply #1 on: January 31, 2020, 02:27:57 PM »



Agarwood Tree – The Wood Of Gods
February 21, 2018No Comments
The Relevance of Agarwood Tree
Nature always leaves us transfixed with her mysteriously treasured possessions. Here is one such wonder is hidden in the virtues of aromatic, dark resinous wood. And the world hails them as “The Wood of Gods” – Agarwood tree/Oud tree.

Widely used for a variety of applications, one relatively unheard use of Oud, is tea made from its leaves. Carefully picked, matured oud leaves form the Oud tea blend. Renowned as a delightful drink, it also accounts for a number of health benefits.

History and Tradition
Agarwood is known to the world by different local names. It is an aromatic and highly valued heartwood found in Aquilaria trees. There are over 15 species of Agarwood tree currently known to us. And they are mainly traded as wood chips, wood dust, and oud essential oil.

Oud and its essential oil achieved immense cultural and religious significance since ancient days, evidence of which can be found in one of the oldest written texts – the Vedas. The chronicle, Nan Zhouyiwuzhi (Strange things from the South) written by Wa Zhen in the 3rd century has mentioned Oud produced in Rinan commandery. Now Central Vietnam, explaining the process of people collecting it from the mountains.

By 1580, after Nguyên Hoàng took over the central provinces of modern Vietnam, trade with other countries was encouraged. Agarwood was exported in three varieties: Calambac (kynam in Vietnamese), Tram Huong (slightly harder and slightly more abundant), and authentic Oud. A Royal Monopoly over the sale of Calambac was soon established by the Nguyên Lords and this helped them fund the state finances.

Why Agarwood Tree Consider as “WOOD OF GODS”?
Oud accounts for at least a 3,000-year-old history in the South East, South West, and Central Aisa. Much ancient literature and religious scriptures are found to have made references on agarwood. The great Indian poet Kalidasa has written, “Beautiful ladies, preparing themselves for the feast of pleasures, cleanse themselves with the yellow powder of sandal, freshen their breast with pleasant aromas, and suspended their dark hair in the smoke of burning aloeswood”.

Oud is an integral part of Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, Tao, Sufi etc. culture and religious landscape. It is also widely used as a natural remedy for many diseases. Buddhist followers believe that inhaling Agar-wood fumes will help one to attain ultimate meditation level and hence it’s used accordingly.

It’s also mentioned in the 8th-century tomes of Shahin Muslims. Old Testament to mentions the word ‘aloes’ several times. In Japanese, the earliest record of agarwood was in 595 AD.

With these findings and many more scriptures mentioning about Agarwood tree as a sacred element, it is termed as the Wood Of Gods!


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Re: 沉香, Agarwood
« Reply #2 on: January 31, 2020, 02:47:52 PM »


沉香:比黄金还要昂贵的香味
英格丽德·皮佩
(Ingrid Piper)
2017年 3月 31日
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Image copyrightGETTY IMAGES
Image caption
沉香树被破坏的部分被霉菌侵蚀后形成沉香木(图片来源:HASSAN AMMAR/AFP/Getty Images)
数千根燃烧的香所散发的香味飘散在永利檀香庄狭窄的门面里。这是香港油麻地附近一家传统的家族生意。墙边放着一包包亮金红色的香,但是珍藏在玻璃橱柜里的是所有香中最贵的一种——沉香。

香港正是得名于这种有着刺鼻的泥土味的木头。在粤语中,香港意为"香料之港"。这种味道明确地提醒我们,这座现在的世界金融中心曾经是殖民地商埠,在同中东甚至更远地方进行香料贸易中发挥着关键的作用。

Image copyrightALAMY
Image caption
沉香木的树脂用来生产被称为"液体黄金"的乌木油(图片来源:dave stamboulis/Alamy Stock Photo)
84岁高龄的阮华已经在这家香店工作了70多年。他的儿子肯尼现在经营着这家店,已经将事业版图扩展到了中国内地,在北京、上海和哈尔滨开了新店。尽管阮华已经退休了,他还经常去自己曾经工作的那家位于上海街的店去看看。

"沉香木一直都是一种昂贵的木头,"阮华告诉我。他回想起自己13岁开始在这一行工作的时候。"过去,沉香用来入药,有很好的的止痛效果。现在已经没人将沉香药用了,都是拿来做香。"

沉香树通常被种在村庄周围的风水宝地。沉香木形成于沉香树被破坏的部分,这部分的木头上会长满霉菌。当时机成熟,就把被侵蚀后黑黢黢的呈树脂质的木头从没什么味道的淡黄色的健康的木头上剥落下来。

Image copyrightGETTY IMAGES
Image caption
沉香树被破坏的部分被霉菌侵蚀后形成沉香木(图片来源:HASSAN AMMAR/AFP/Getty Images)
长期以来,沉香都是令人们趋之若鹜的一种香料,被称为"香中之王",在中东和亚洲地区广泛进行贸易。中国唐宋时期的历史记载表明,这是一种价值极高的商品,而它那令人陶醉的香味也与佛教、道教、伊斯兰教和基督教都有着历史渊源。

现在,小块的沉香被制作成香片,2014年的市价是每千克58,000港币。大块的沉香有几米高,被手工雕刻成雕塑然后出售。永利檀香庄里曾经有一块沉香被雕刻成树根和树干的形状,标价120万港元。阮华说:"这些都是艺术品。"

沉香因其在香氛中的用途而被追捧。从沉香中可以提取出乌木油,这是高端香水的关键成分,比如阿玛尼的皇家沉香香水和圣罗兰的M7绝对乌木香水。乌木油的价格已经高达每千克30万港币。因其如此昂贵,被称为"液体黄金"。

但是过去几十年间,由于沉香的需求量巨大,导致香港的沉香树已经徘徊在灭绝的边缘。

Image copyrightINGRID PIPER
Image caption
沉香树是制作沉香木的原料,成为非法盗取的目标(图片来源:Ingrid Piper)
亚洲种植园资本公司(APC)是亚洲最大的商业沉香种植企业之一,正致力于通过在香港和整个亚洲鼓励可持续的沉香种植来拯救这一树种。他们认为,尽管香港政府宣称自2009年以来每年都种植约10,000棵树种,但是香港只剩几百棵野生沉香树了。

但是,只种树并不能保证沉香树的存活,因为它需要很多年才能成熟。目前已经成熟了的沉香树面临更多来自于非法偷盗者的威胁。

"偷盗者寻找自然形成沉香的老树,因为可以卖更高的价钱,所以这些树面临着越来越大的危险,"亚洲种植园资本公司驻香港的销售主管杰勒德·麦格沃克说道,"现在在香港,能找到30年树龄的沉香,就是走运了。"

虽然现存的野生沉香树的确切数量没有定论,但是严重的偷盗行为正在发生,这是无可争议的事实。

在升平村附近,接近香港与深圳的边界的地方,陈观荣的家族种植沉香已经三代了,他有一个小种植园,种有大概6000棵沉香树。他是目前香港唯一种沉香树的人。为了能供养、保护和出售这种濒危树种,他加入了与亚洲种植园资本公司的联合经营。

Image copyrightINGRID PIPER
Image caption
像陈观荣这样的种植园是一种可持续的生产沉香木的方式(图片来源:Ingrid Piper)
为了呼吁人们关注野生沉香树所面临的困境,亚洲种植园资本公司提供有讲解的游览,游客可以参观陈观荣的种植园以及几个种有很多沉香树的公共公园。在距离陈观荣的种植园不远处的八仙兰国家公园里,空气里充满了浓重的沉香气味,来自于已经被剥落得只剩光秃秃的树干的沉香树。这种行为粗鲁至极,目的是破坏沉香树而不是杀死它。

"不是所有的沉香树都有沉香,所以盗贼们是在赌运气。"阮华说。在野外,只有7%的沉香树可以产生沉香。

在公园雾气腾腾、满是蚊虫的林下灌丛里,独特的气味对盗贼来说是一个确切的标志,他们冒着最高坐十年牢的风险,会得到一些回报。如果能找到珍贵的沉香在黑市卖掉,他们就能拿到一大笔钱。

在过去两年里,警署和渔农自然护理署(AFCD)的工作人员在偷盗重灾区如西贡区、大屿山和新界北区实施了35次反偷盗行动。现在,渔农自然护理署计划对沉香树试实施远程电子监控,在这一区域西岸的大埔滘自然保护区设置闭路电视,除此之外还要在元朗区附近的大棠苗圃种植更多树苗。

Image copyrightINGRID PIPER
Image caption
亚洲种植园资本公司向游客提供游览当地公园的旅行,以使他们了解濒危的沉香树(图片来源:Ingrid Piper)
在位于香港的国家公园种植更多树苗似乎也不可能完全阻止投机式的偷盗行为,但是调动起投资者对有利于环境可持续性的沉香种植园的兴趣可以拯救香港现存的频临灭绝的沉香树。

瓦特说:"我们在五个国家建造了沉香树种植园,我们坚定地相信可持续发展,在我们工作的社区进行投资可以创造积极的社会效应。"

他说:"我们与陈先生的战略合作将有利于提供所需的支持和技术,从而在可持续发展的基础上为香港带来长期的商业机遇。同时,也可以帮助陈先生在当地生产乌木油。"

请访问 BBC Travel 阅读 英文原文。

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Online king

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Re: 沉香, Agarwood
« Reply #3 on: February 01, 2020, 09:15:25 PM »



木中钻石